Table 1.

Published ages, offsets and slip rates for the Karakoram Fault, with brief details on the source of the estimate

Age (Ma)Offset (km)Slip rate (mm a−1)Data sourceReference
1000aaOffset Ladakh–Gangdese granodiorite batholithPeltzer & Tapponnier (1988)
<9 ± 4aaAnalysis of earthquake slip-vectorsMolnar & Lyon-Caen (1989)
115aaOffset of Indus riverGaudemer et al. (1989)
115a32 ± 8baOffset of Indus riverLiu (1993)
bInferred Quaternary slip rate based on assumed age and calculated offset of glacial moraine
32 ± 8aaInferred Quaternary slip rate based on assumed age and calculated offset of glacial moraineAvouac & Tapponnier (1993)
200aaOffset Indus–Yarlung sutureRatschbacher et al. (1996)
11a300b30caAr–Ar mica age in shear zoneMatte et al. (1996)
bExtrapolated offset
cInferred Quaternary rate from assumed age and glacial moraine offset
4a120baExtrapolated ageSearle (1996)
bOffset of Karakoram leucogranites
c. 10aaModelled regional strain fieldEngland & Molnar (1997b)
20aaAnalogue block modelMcCaffrey & Nabelek (1998)
18a150b8ca,bAge and offset of pre-kinematic leucogranitesSearle et al. (1998)
cCalculated long-term geological slip rate
11 ± 4aaGeodetic measurements from southwest TibetBanerjee & Bürgmann (2002)
c. 10aaModelled regional strain fieldHolt et al. (2000)
4aaCalculated Quaternary slip rate based on dated age and offset of glacial moraineBrown et al. (2002)
13a66b4caAr–Ar mica age in Kailas thrustMurphy et al. (2000)
bOffset of Kailas thrust
cInferred slip rate since 13 Ma
23–32a250–400b10–13caAge of ‘synkinematic' granitesLacassin et al. (2004a)
bOffset of sutures
cInferred slip rate since 23 Ma
1 ± 3aaInSAR across SW TibetWright et al. (2004)
3 ± 5aaGeodetic measurement from LadakhJade et al. (2004)
16–14a40–150b3–10caAge of offset leucogranitesPhillips et al. (2004)
bMinimum-maximum offset range
cInferred slip rate range since c. 15 Ma
4–10aaPlateau wide GPS measurementsZhang et al. (2004)
c. 10aaCalculated Quaternary slip rate based on dated age and offset of glacial morainesChevalier et al. (2005)
5aaReinterpretation of Chevalier et al. (2005)Brown et al. (2005)
3–4aaContinuum modelling with GPS and Quaternary constraintsEngland & Molnar (2005)
21.2a120b7–10caAr–Ar age gives minimum for fault imitationValli et al. (2007)
bOffset of the Indus river
cInferred minimum slip rate range
0–6aaMicroplate model with GPS constraintsMeade (2007)
14–18aa3D mechanical model with far-field GPS and Late Quaternary slip rate constraintsHe & Chery (2008)
15–21a480b21–32caCompilation of age constraints along strikeValli et al. (2008)
bOffset of Bangong suture
cSlip rate using a,b
13–25a200–240b8–19caCompilation of age constraints along strikeValli et al. (2008)
bMatching Shyok suture to Shiquanhe suture
cSlip rate using a,b
10–23a>220b>10–22caCompilation of age constraints along strikeValli et al. (2008)
bOffset of Indus suture
cSlip rate using a,b
149–167a6–12baExposure limits of Late Triassic–Early Jurassic limestone Aghil formationRobinson (2009a)
bInferred slip rate using initiation ages from Phillips et al. (2004) and Valli et al. (2007)
0a0baNo offset observed in 150 ka Quaternary fansRobinson (2009b)
bQuaternary slip rate for the northern Karakoram Fault