Table 2. 

Hardware used for digital mapping and survey, typical speeds, use and cost

HardwareTypical claimed accuracySpeedUseCost
Handheld GPS, computer and mobile GISc. 3–10 mInstant locational fixReconnaissance and regional mapping£500
DGPS and mobile GISc. 0.3 mInstant fixDetailed mapping and attribute collection>£2000
Real-time kinematic (RTK) GPS unitsBetter than 10 mmInstant point collection on triggerAttribute collection at c. 10 cm resolution over outcrops; surveying outcrops and base stations for other methods>£10 000
Reflectorless total station3 mm at 200 m rangeInstant point collection on triggerAttribute collection at c. 10 cm resolution over outcrops; better for vertical faces than RTK GPS>£6000
Terrestrial laser scanner6 mm at 200 m rangeAutomatic point collection up to 12 000 points per second; colour intensity mapping from digital camerasAcquiring surface topography on outcrops, allows draping of photographs to form a 2.5D image of an outcrop>£20 000
Aerial and ground-based photogrammetric methodsVariable depending on distanceFast acquisition (minutes), slow set-up and processing (days)Acquiring detailed images of beach-section and other flat-lying exposuresVariable £500–£10 000