Table 5.

Examples of karst volumes at 16 locations worldwide for comparison with the volume of the Brassington Formation outliers

Type of karst voidLocationBrief descriptionEstimate of volume (m3)Reference
Air/water filled; subsurfaceBig Shack, Golconda Mine, Derbyshire, UKThe largest subterranean open void in the Peak Limestone Group and within 10 km of the Bees Nest subsidence complex40 000Ford & Jones (2007)
Titan Shaft, Peak Cavern, Derbyshire, UKHydrothermal karst focused on vein cavities79 750Waltham (2000)
Main Chamber, Gaping Gill, Yorkshire, UKThe largest cave chamber in the UK and Ireland110 000Murphy et al. (2005)
Ogof Draenen, South Wales, UKThe longest cave in Wales and the second longest in the UK (70 km)not calculatedFarrant et al. (2014)
Sarawak Chamber, BorneoThe largest cave chamber in the world; on average, 70 m high13 300 000Mouret (2001)
Soon Dong Cave, VietnamThe largest cave passage in the world at 80 m high, 80 m wide and 4.5 km long28 800 000Owen (2009)
Deer Cave, BorneoThe second largest cave passage in the world at 91 m high, 91 m wide and 1.6 km long13 249 600Owen (2009)
Miaos Room, Gebihe System, ChinaThe second largest cave chamber in the world10 570 000National Geographic (2009) (viewed online)
Rhodope Mountains, BulgariaEncountered in marble during exploratory boring238 000 000Dublyansky (2000)
Mammoth Cave, Brownsville, Kentucky, USAThe longest cave in the world at 590–629 m measured in 200610 554 590National Geographic (2009)
Salle de La Verna, French Pyrenees, FranceThe largest cave chamber open to tourists in the world (194 m high)3 800 000Ford (1988)
Krubera Cave, GeorgiaThe deepest cave in the world (2197 m)not calculatedKlimchouk (2005)
Karst voids, open to the surfaceXiaozhai Tiakeng, Chonqing, China (also known as the Heavenly Pit)The deepest sinkhole in the world (662 m deep)119 400 000Waltham et al. (2005)
Hranická Propast, Czech RepublicThe deepest underwater cave in the world (404 m)not calculatedLong (2016)
Pozzo del Merro, ItalyThe deepest of the Blue Holes (329 m deep)not calculatedPalozzi et al. (2010)
Dean's Blue Hole, Bahamas202 m deep, 30 m diameter at the surface and >100 m in diameter at depth2 681 192Todhunter (2010)
Sediment-filled karst voidsGhlin Cran, Hainault Coalfield, BelgiumCretaceous (Berriasian–Turonian), cylindrical karst: 700 m in diameter; 1600 m deep615 752 160Ollier (2007)
Whitesheet Rock, Pembrokeshire, South Wales, UKThe largest of the Gash Breccias: 100 m in diameter; at least 45 m deep350 000Rowberry et al. (2014)
Ballydeenlea Chalk Breccia, Kerry, IrelandNot universally regarded as a karst structure2 000 000Evans & Clayton (1998)
Heritage Range, Ellsworth Mountains, AntarcticaHydrothermal karst breccia bodies in the Cambrian Minaret Formation. The breccia bodies are varied in shape and orientation, but reach 250 m in height and 50 m in widthnot calculatedSpörli et al. (1992)